What Students will learn in Gr-10

Grade 10 

General Outcome 1 (Grade 10)

Students will listen, speak, read, write, view and represent to explore thoughts, ideas, feelings and experiences.

1.1 Discover and Explore

Express ideas and develop understanding

  • talk with others and experience a variety of oral, print and other media texts to explore, develop and justify own opinions and points of view
  • explore and explain how interactions with others and with oral, print and other media texts affect personal understandings 
  • extend understanding by taking different points of view when rereading and reflecting on oral, print and other media texts 

Experiment with language and forms

  • develop and extend understanding by expressing and responding to ideas on the same topic, in a variety of forms of oral, print and other media texts

Express preferences

  • explain preferences for texts and genres by particular writers, artists, storytellers and filmmakers

Set goals

  • reflect on own growth in language learning and use, by considering progress over time and the attainment of personal goals

1.2 Clarify and Extend

Consider the ideas of others

  • integrate own perspectives and interpretations with new understandings developed through discussing and through experiencing a variety of oral, print and other media texts 

Combine ideas

  • examine and re-examine ideas, information and experiences from different points of view to find patterns and see relationships

Extend understanding

  • assess whether new information extends understanding by considering diverse opinions and exploring ambiguities

General Outcome 2 (Grade 10)


Students will listen, speak, read, write, view and represent to comprehend and respond personally and critically to oral, print and other media texts.

2.1 Use Strategies and Cues

Use prior knowledge

  • discuss how interpretations of the same text might vary, according to the prior knowledge and experiences of various readers
  • use previous reading experiences, personal experiences and prior knowledge as a basis for reflecting on and interpreting ideas encountered in texts

Use comprehension strategies

  • identify explicit and implicit ideas and information in texts; listen and respond to various interpretations of the same text
  • select appropriate reading rate and strategies for comprehending texts less closely connected to prior knowledge and personal experiences
  • preview complex texts as to their intent, content and structure, and use this information to set a purpose and select strategies for reading

Use textual cues

  • use knowledge of visual and textual cues and structural features when skimming and scanning various print and other media texts to locate relevant information effectively and efficiently
  • analyze and discuss how the structural features of informational materials, such as textbooks, bibliographies, databases, catalogues, web sites, commercials and newscasts, enhance the effectiveness and efficiency of communication

Use phonics and structural analysis

  • apply and explain effective procedures for identifying and comprehending words in context; adjust procedures according to the purpose for reading and the complexity of the texts

Use references

  • use reference materials, including a writer’s handbook, to verify correct usage, address uncertainties and solve problems that arise

2.2 Respond to Texts

Experience various texts

  • experience oral, print and other media texts from a variety of cultural traditions and genres, such as essays, broadcast advertisements, novels, poetry, documentaries, films, electronic magazines and realistic fiction
  • identify and discuss how timeless themes are developed in a variety of oral, print and other media texts
  • consider historical context when developing own points of view or interpretations of oral, print and other media texts
  • compare and contrast own life situation with themes of oral, print and other media texts
  • express the themes of oral, print or other media texts in different forms or genres
  • consider peers’ interpretations of oral, print and other media texts, referring to the texts for supporting or contradicting evidence

Construct meaning from texts

  • analyze how the choices and motives of characters portrayed in oral, print and other media texts provide insight into those of self and others
  • identify and discuss theme and point of view in oral, print and other media texts
  • discuss and explain various interpretations of the same oral, print or other media text
  • relate the themes, emotions and experiences portrayed in oral, print and other media texts to issues of personal interest or significance

Appreciate the artistry of texts

  • discuss how techniques, such as irony, symbolism, perspective and proportion, communicate meaning and enhance effect in oral, print and other media texts 
  • discuss character development in terms of consistency of behaviour and plausibility of change
  • describe how theme, dominant impression and mood are developed and sustained through choices in language use and the interrelationship of plot, setting and character
  • identify features that define particular oral, print and other media texts; discuss differences in style and their effects on content and audience impression

2.3 Understand Forms, Elements and Techniques

Understand forms and genres

  • explain the relationships between purposes and characteristics of various forms and genres of oral, print and other media texts
  • evaluate the effectiveness of different types of media texts for presenting ideas and information

Understand techniques and elements

  • compare the development of character, plot and theme in two oral, print or other media texts
  • evaluate the effectiveness of oral, print and other media texts, considering the believability of plot and setting, the credibility of characters, and the development and resolution of conflict
  • compare a main character in one text to the main character in another text from a different era, genre or medium
  • identify ways that a change in narrator might affect the overall meaning of oral, print and other media texts 
  • summarize the content of media texts, and suggest alternative treatments

Experiment with language

  • analyze creative uses of language and visuals in popular culture, such as advertisements, electronic magazines and the Internet; recognize how imagery and figurative language, such as metaphor, create a dominant impression, mood and tone

2.4 Create Original Text

Generate ideas

  • generalize from own experience to create oral, print and other media texts on a theme

Elaborate on the expression of ideas

  • create oral, print and other media texts on common literary themes

Structure texts

  • create oral, print and other media texts that interrelate plot, setting and character, and reveal the significance of the action
  • create oral, print and other media texts that include main and minor characters, and show how the main character develops and changes as a result of the action and events

General Outcome 3 (Grade 10)

Students will listen, speak, read, write, view and represent to manage ideas and information.

3.1 Plan and Focus

Focus attention

  • synthesize ideas and information from a variety of sources to develop own opinions, points of view and general impressions
  • assess adequacy, accuracy, detail and appropriateness of oral, print and other media texts to support or further develop arguments, opinions or points of view

Determine information needs

  • select types and sources of information to achieve an effective balance between researched information and own ideas

Plan to gather information

  • select information sources that will provide effective support, convincing argument or unique perspectives

3.2 Select and Process

Use a variety of sources

  • obtain information reflecting multiple perspectives from a variety of sources, such as expository essays, graphs, diagrams, online catalogues, periodical indices, film libraries, electronic databases and the Internet, when conducting research

Access information

  • expand and use a variety of tools and text features, such as organizational patterns of texts, page layouts, font styles and sizes, colour and voice-overs, to access information
  • distinguish between primary and secondary sources, and determine the usefulness of each for research purposes
  • follow up on cited references to locate additional information

Evaluate sources

  • evaluate sources for currency, reliability and possible bias of information for a particular research project

3.3 Organize, Record and Evaluate

Organize information

  • organize ideas and information by developing and selecting appropriate categories and organizational structures
  • balance all sections of oral, print and other media texts and ensure sentences, paragraphs and key ideas are linked throughout
  • develop coherence by relating all key ideas to the overall purpose of the oral, print or other media text

Record information

  • use own words to summarize and record information in a variety of forms; paraphrase and/or quote relevant facts and opinions; reference sources 
  • select and record ideas and information that will support an opinion or point of view, appeal to the audience, and suit the tone and length of the chosen form of oral, print or other media text
  • choose specific vocabulary, and use conventions accurately and effectively to enhance credibility

Evaluate information

  • evaluate usefulness, relevance and completeness of gathered information; address information gaps
  • reflect on new understanding and its value to self and others

3.4 Share and Review

Share ideas and information

  • communicate ideas and information in a variety of oral, print and other media texts, such as media scripts, multimedia presentations, panel discussions and articles
  • integrate appropriate visual, print and/or other media to reinforce overall impression or point of view and engage the audience

Review research process

  • reflect on the research process, identifying areas of strength and ways to improve further research activities

General Outcome 4 (Grade 10)

Students will listen, speak, read, write, view and represent to enhance the clarity and artistry of communication.

4.1 Enhance and Improve

Appraise own and others’ work

  • share sample treatments of a topic with peers, and ask for feedback on the relative effectiveness of each 
  • work collaboratively to make appropriate revisions based on feedback provided by peers 

Revise and edit

  • revise to ensure effective introductions, consistent points of view, effective transitions between ideas and appropriate conclusions
  • revise to enhance effective transitions between ideas and maintain a consistent organizational pattern 
  • revise to combine narration, description and exposition effectively

Enhance legibility

  • develop personal handwriting styles appropriate for a variety of purposes 
  • identify and experiment with some principles of design that enhance the presentation of texts 

Expand knowledge of language

  • distinguish between the denotative and connotative meaning of words, and discuss effectiveness for achieving purpose and affecting audience 
  • explore the derivation and use of words, phrases and jargon, including variations in language, accent and dialect in Canadian communities and regions

Enhance artistry

  • experiment with the language and components of particular forms to communicate themes or represent the perspectives of a variety of people or characters

4.2 Attend to Conventions

Attend to grammar and usage

  • identify and use parallel structure in own writing 
  • identify and use coordination, subordination and apposition to enhance communication
  • use a variety of strategies to make effective transitions between sentences and paragraphs in own writing

Attend to spelling

  • demonstrate the deliberate, conscientious and independent application of a variety of editing and proofreading strategies to confirm spellings in own writing
  • identify situations in which careful attention to correct spelling is especially important
  • identify and use variant spellings for particular effects, depending on audience, purpose, content and context

Attend to capitalization and punctuation

  • use quotation marks to distinguish words being discussed in own writing
  • use dashes to show sentence breaks or interrupted speech, where appropriate in own writing
  • know that rules for punctuation can vary, and adjust punctuation use for effect in own writing

4.3 Present and Share

Present information

  • select, organize and present information to appeal to the interests and background knowledge of various readers or audiences

Enhance presentation

  • choose appropriate types of evidence and strategies to clarify ideas and information, and to convince various readers and audiences

Use effective oral and visual communication

  • integrate a variety of media and display techniques, as appropriate, to enhance the appeal, accuracy and persuasiveness of presentations 

Demonstrate attentive listening and viewing

  • follow the train of thought, and evaluate the credibility of the presenter and the evidence provided
  • provide feedback that encourages the presenter and audience to consider other ideas and additional information 

General Outcome 5 (Grade 10)


Students will listen, speak, read, write, view and represent to respect, support and collaborate with others.

5.1 Respect Others and Strengthen Community

Appreciate diversity

  • examine how personal experiences, cultural traditions and Canadian perspectives are presented in oral, print and other media texts
  • take responsibility for developing and sharing oral, print and other media texts and for responding respectfully to the texts of others 

Relate texts to culture

  • analyze how oral, print and other media texts reflect the traditions, beliefs and technologies of different cultures, communities or periods in history

Celebrate accomplishments and events

  • explore and experiment with various ways in which language arts are used across cultures, age groups and genders to honour and celebrate people and events

Use language to show respect

  • create or use oral, print and other media texts in ways that are respectful of people, opinions, communities and cultures

5.2 Work within a Group

Cooperate with others

  • contribute to group efforts to reach consensus or conclusions, by engaging in dialogue to understand the ideas and viewpoints of others
  • discuss and choose ways to coordinate the abilities and interests of individual group members to achieve group goals 

Work in groups

  • generate and access ideas in a group, and use a variety of methods to focus and clarify topics for research or investigations 
  • share responsibility for the completion of team projects by establishing clear purpose and procedures for solving problems, monitoring progress and making modifications to meet stated objectives 

Evaluate group process

  • establish and use criteria to evaluate group process and personal contributions; set goals and make plans for improvement